CARCHEMISH

CARCHEMISH
CARCHEMISH (Heb. כַּרְכְּמִישׁ), ancient city in N. Syria, on the east bank of the Euphrates. Known today as Jerablus, it is about 62 miles (100 km.) northeast of Aleppo. The city's importance as a political and commercial center derived from its location at the crossroads connecting Mesopotamia with Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt. It is first mentioned in Akkadian sources of the 18th century B.C.E. as Karkamiš. During that period Carchemish was ruled by an "Amorite" dynasty. Carchemish (k-r-k-m-š) was one of the cities conquered by Thutmosis III, king of Egypt (15th century). In the 15th and 14th centuries the city came into the sphere of influence of Mitanni, and with the decline of Mitanni, it became part of the Hittite empire. It is included among the states allied with the Hittite king in the battle against Egypt at Kadesh (c. 1286 B.C.E.). The disaster which overtook the Hittite empire with the invasion of the Sea Peoples did not spare Carchemish; however, the city was resettled by people from Asia Minor and soon became a center of Neo-Hittite culture. Ashurnasirpal II and shalmaneser iii (ninth century B.C.E.) subjugated Sangara of Carchemish, imposing a heavy tax upon him. The attempts of such rulers of Carchemish as Pisiris to free themselves of Assyrian rule, with the aid of Ararat or the Syrian states, ended when Sargon II turned it into an Assyrian province in 717 B.C.E. (cf. Isa. 10:9). Carchemish continued to be a large commercial center under Assyrian rule. At the same time, the population of the city absorbed Aramean and Assyrian cultural influences. When Pharaoh Neco went to Assyria's aid against Babylonia and Media in 609 B.C.E. he established his camp at Carchemish (cf. II Chron. 35:20), occasionally venturing forth to attack the enemy. The Babylonian Chronicle reports that in 605 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar inflicted defeat upon the Egyptian forces at Carchemish (Galgameš; cf. Jer. 46:2), thereby opening the way to Syria and Palestine for the Babylonian forces. benjamin of tudela reported 500 Jews in Kirkisiya (Girgisiya), a town on the bank of the Euphrates, which he identified with Carchemish. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Woolley, Carchemish, 2–3 (1921–1952); A. Goetze, in: Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 8 (1954), 74; H.G. Gueterbock, in: JNES, 13 (1954), 102–14; D. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings (1956); EM, S.V., includes bibliography; H. Klengel, Geschichte Syriens (1965); D. Ussishkin, in: JNES, 26 (1967), 91. (Bustanay Oded)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Carchemish — Coordinates: 36°49′47″N 38°00′54″E / 36.82972°N 38.015°E / 36.82972; 38.015 …   Wikipedia

  • Carchemish — /kahr keuh mish, kahr kee /, n. an ancient city in S Turkey, on the upper Euphrates: important city in the Mitanni kingdom; later the capital of the Hittite empire. Also, Charchemish. * * * Ancient city state, western bank of the Euphrates River …   Universalium

  • Carchemish —    An ancient Near Eastern city strategically located on the upper Euphrates in northern Syria on one of the main trade routes linking Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean world. Archaeological evidence indicates that the site of carchemish was… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Carchemish — Karkemish Karkemish et les principaux sites de la Syrie du IIe millénaire av. J. C. Karkemish (appelée Europus par les Romains) est une ville antique des empires Mitanni et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Carchemish — Antigua ciudad estado en la orilla occidental del Éufrates. Sus restos se ubican al sudeste de Gaziantep, Turquía, cerca de la frontera con Siria. Durante el segundo milenio BC, perteneció al reino mitanni y más tarde llegó a ser una de las… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Carchemish — geographical name ruined city S Turkey on the Euphrates at Syrian border N of modern Jarabulus, Syria …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Carchemish — noun /ˈkɑːrkimɪʃ/ ancient city in Mesopotamia on the Euphrates, near modern day Turkish Syrian border …   Wiktionary

  • Carchemish —    Fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates (Jer. 46:2; 2 Chr. 35:20), not, as was once supposed, the Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but a city considerably higher up the river, and commanding… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Carchemish — A Syrian city on the River Euphrates which was bitterly fought over and passed in turn to Assyria, Egypt, and Babylonia (605 BCE; Jer. 46:2) …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Carchemish — Car•chem•ish [[t]ˈkɑr kə mɪʃ, kɑrˈki [/t]] n. anh geg an ancient city in what is now S Turkey, on the upper Euphrates: a chief Hittite city …   From formal English to slang

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”